Zuma handed himself in to the South African Police Service on July 7 after being sentenced to 15 months in jail for failing to appear before an inquiry into corruption during his time in office, between 2009 and 2018. Following the deployment of the military, much of the unrest has calmed in recent weeks, but although at first glance the short-term economic damage seems less concerning than initially feared, analysts are worried about underlying longer-term effects on the broader economy. A fire engulfs Campsdrift Park, which houses Makro and China Mall, following protests that have widened into looting in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa July 13, 2021, in this screen grab taken from a video obtained from social media. "To put this into perspective, retail trade and production accounts for about 20 percent of gross domestic product, or almost $70 billion, of which $14 billion may have been lost, according to estimates by local banks," Robert Besseling, CEO of political risk consultancy Pangea-Risk, told CNBC on Friday. "Moreover, the impact on poor communities will be disproportionate, since most looted stores and malls are close to townships. These communities will now struggle to find nearby groceries and supplies, even while Covid-19 lockdowns remain in place." Besseling said the prospect of future fuel shortages cannot be ruled out, since three of the country's refineries are now shut, two of which due to maintenance reasons. Only one refinery in the Free State province remains operational, while panic buying has placed extreme pressure on supply chains, he added. "Therefore the medium to longer term impact of the unrest on the economy is expected to be more substantial than the immediate repercussions of the violence, which will drag down economic recovery prospects and potentially motivate higher rates of criminality and unrest, including copycat instances of looting," Besseling said. Zuma's arrest deepened divisions within the ruling ANC party between the former president's loyalists and those on board with the agenda of his successor, President Ramaphosa. Besseling suggested that in order to deliver on his promised economic reform agenda, Ramaphosa will have to seize this opportunity to purge Zuma loyalists from his party and governance structures. Riots 'could not have come at a worse time' The International Monetary Fund expects South Africa's economy to grow 4% in 2021 and all indicators up to now have pointed to a sharper-than-expected rebound from the Covid-induced recession. First-quarter GDP grew 1.1% for an annual rise of 4.6%, while increased mobility and business confidence data in the second quarter have also offered cause for optimism. However, KwaZulu-Natal and Gauteng, where many ruined businesses are expected to take years to rebuild, contribute half of the country's GDP and almost half of its entire population. The port of Durban in KwaZulu-Natal acts as a trade gateway to the southern subcontinent and accounts for around 70% of South Africa's imports. Economists are estimating that the cost to the national economy from the destruction caused by pro-Zuma protests is estimated at 50 billion rand ($3.43 billion). In a research note last week, NKC African Economics noted that other major concerns include the further disruption of supply chains on top of that caused by the pandemic, along with threats to food security. "The events that occurred in KwaZulu-Natal and Gauteng could not have come at a worst time" said NKC senior economist Pieter du Preez. South African Police Services (SAPS) members arrest a looter at the Gold Spot Shopping Centre in Vosloorus, southeast of Johannesburg, on July 12, 2021. NKC revised down its economic growth forecast for South Africa in 2021 to 3.8% from 4.3%, and said the medium-term outlook is also hindered by falling investor confidence and a lack of fiscal space, which is expected to crowd out fixed investment expenditure. "Early estimates of the damage additional info are alarming, with 50,000 informal traders and 40,000 businesses affected, putting 150,000 jobs at risk," du Preez said. "Approximately 3,000 stores were looted, 100 shopping malls suffered significant fire damage, and almost 1,200 retailer outlets were impacted and damaged." All this came in addition to the third wave of Covid-19 hitting harder than expected due to the transmissibility of the delta variant, he added.


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Image of a flexible CPU Silicon Who? Researchers Develop Arm Microprocessor Built out of Plastic Researchers with Arm and PragmatIC have developed the first true microprocessor that employs plastic — not silicon — as its base material. The 32-bit PlasticArm microprocessor concept is based on the company's M0 design and features around 18,000 logic gates, a processor, memory, controller, and inputs and outputs. The development, published in Nature , will allow a new era of truly bendable, flexible microchips that are also cheaper to produce than silicon. Silicon has been the base element for semiconductor manufacturing since the dawn of computing, which began over 50 years ago with the introduction of Intel's 4004 CPU. That packed an at the time astonishing 2,300 transistors. Silicon's rise to power is predicated on two fundamental characteristics. First, it's the second most common element on Earth (which means it's both cheap and readily available). Second is the capability to function as either an energy conductor or an energy insulator, depending on its implementation.  However, silicon does have some caveats that are becoming more and more limiting in regards to the scope of its applications. For one, it's brittle and rigid, meaning that it can't be easily integrated in actual biology — nature has a way of not enjoying straight lines when it comes to cooking up life. The how you can help second important caveat is that while it may be cheap to produce, it's certainly not cheap enough to be used in everyday, expendable products in a cost-effective way. Enter the PlasticArm development, which aims to enable plastic as a medium with which processing chips can be built, skirting both those limitations.  A high-level overview of the PlasticArm test chip and its design (Image credit: Arm & PragmatIC) This is not a replacement for silicon, mind you. The researchers point out that silicon presents advantages in terms of performance, density, and power efficiency. Instead, the two technologies are expected to complement each other according to the application requirements. The researchers point out possible applications in bottles (for smart milk or juice bottles that analyze whether or not the product has gone rancid), food packages, garments (imagine a sweater that smartly detects body or outside temperature and increases the space between fibers for better cooling), wearable patches, bandages, and so on. Other possible applications include biomonitors. Imagine a thin plastic, computing-capable film that's placed on internal organs or tissue for diagnostics and early signs of trouble. Wearable electronics patches that can display information directly on your skin another option, or less-invasive diagnostics for wildlife monitoring.  Researchers predict scaling capabilities of up to 100,000 logic gates before power consumption becomes a problem and additional materials are required for the manufacturing process. Even so, the test chip only consumes around 21 milliwats of power — most of it wasted in idle states — which could easily be provided solar cells smaller than postage stamps. Eventual charging mechanisms will look toward wireless charging technologies, enabling true self-contained chips.